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Table 2 Staging of extravasation injuries[17] as adapted from Millan[10]

From: Neonatal extravasation injury: prevention and management in Australia and New Zealand-a survey of current practice

Stage Characteristics
I Painful intravenous site, no erythema, no swelling
II Painful intravenous site, slight swelling, no blanching, good pulse below intravenous site, brisk capillary refill below intravenous site
III Painful intravenous site, marked swelling, blanching, skin cool to touch, good pulse below intravenous site, brisk capillary refill below intravenous site
IV Painful intravenous site, very marked swelling, blanching, skin cool to touch, decreased or absent pulse, capillary refill over 4 s, skin breakdown or necrosis.