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Table 4 Demographic and clinical characteristics of sporadic preaxial polydactyly type I (PPD1) and familial polydactyly (all types)

From: Epidemiology of isolated preaxial polydactyly type I: Data from the Polish Registry of Congenital Malformations (PRCM)

Characteristic Sporadic PPD1 Familial Polydactyly  
N = 459$ N = 353$ P-value
OR [95% CI]
Count (%) Count (%)  
Gender
 Female (reference) 200 (43.6%) 154 (43.6%) 0.99 (NS)
 Male 257 (56%) 198 (56.1%) 1.00 [0.75, 1.32]
Residence type
 Urban (reference) 282 (61.8%) 210 (60%) 0.60 (NS)
 Rural 174 (38.2%) 140 (40%) 0.93 [0.70, 1.23]
Maternal age #
 19 years and less 36 (7.8%) 28 (7.9%)  
 20-24 147 (32%) 94 (26.6%)  
 25-29 147 (32%) 128 (36.3%) 0.55 (NS)
 30-34 91 (19.8%) 61 (17.3%) 0.99 [0.95, 1.03]
 35-39 28 (6.1%) 28 (7.9%)  
 40 years and more 5 (1.1%) 13 (3.7%)  
Paternal age #
 19 years and less 11 (2.4%) 6 (1.7%)  
 20-24 81 (17.6%) 52 (14.7%)  
 25-29 154 (33.6%) 115 (32.6%)  
 30-34 115 (25.1%) 84 (23.8%) 0.23 (NS)
 35-39 54 (11.8%) 49 (13.9%) 0.98 [0.95, 1.01]
 40-44 24 (5.2%) 26 (7.4%)  
 45-49 5 (1.1%) 9 (2.5%)  
 50 years and more 0 (0%) 3 (0.8%)  
Maternal education *
 Elementary and incomplete elementary 63 (13.7%) 41 (11.6%)  
 Vocational 115 (25.1%) 105 (29.7%) 0.32 (NS)
 Secondary 160 (34.9%) 106 (30%) 1.10 [0.91, 1.33]
 Higher 94 (20.5%) 87 (24.6%)  
Paternal education *
 Elementary and incomplete elementary 51 (11.1%) 32 (9.1%) 0.01
 Vocational 196 (42.7%) 135 (38.2%) 0.76 [0.62, 0.93]
 Secondary 119 (25.9%) 96 (27.2%)  
Higher 55 (12%) 65 (18.4%)  
Birthweight [per 500 g body weight]
 500-999 g 2 (0.4%) 1 (0.3%)  
 1000-1499 6 (1.3%) 1 (0.3%)  
 1500-1999 9 (2%) 4 (1.1%)  
 2000-2499 25 (5.4%) 10 (2.8%) <0.0001
 2500-2999 100 (21.8%) 46 (13%) 0.74 [0.65, 0.84]
 3000-3499 175 (38.1%) 140 (39.7%)  
 3500-3999 101 (22%) 102 (28.9%)  
 4000-4499 29 (6.3%) 41 (11.6%)  
 4500 g and more 4 (0.9%) 4 (1.1%)  
Pregnancy length
 under 28 weeks 1 (0.2%) 1 (0.3%)  
 28-31 7 (1.5%) 3 (0.8%) 0.21 (NS)
 32-36 26 (5.7%) 15 (4.2%) 0.95 [0.89, 1.03]
 37-41 397 (86.5%) 305 (86.4%)  
 42 weeks and more 20 (4.4%) 18 (5.1%)  
Pregnancy order
 1 217 (47.3%) 155 (43.9%)  
 2 147 (32%) 115 (32.6%)  
 3 48 (10.5%) 39 (11%) 0.13 (NS)
 4 29 (6.3%) 15 (4.2%) 0.92 [0.83, 1.03]
 5 5 (1.1%) 12 (3.4%)  
 6 6 (1.3%) 5 (1.4%)  
 7 and further 4 (0.9%) 7 (2%)  
Birth order
 1 237 (51.6%) 166 (47%)  
 2 152 (33.1%) 117 (33.1%)  
 3 37 (8.1%) 35 (9.9%) 0.047
 4 19 (4.1%) 12 (3.4%) 0.89 [0.78, 0.998]
 5 5 (1.1%) 8 (2.3%)  
 6 4 (0.9%) 6 (1.7%)  
 7 and further 2 (0.4%) 4 (1.1%)  
Number of spontaneous abortions for 2nd or further pregnancy
 No (reference) 182 (75.2%) 155 (78.3%) 0.30 (NS)
 Yes 57 (23.6%) 38 (19.2%) 1.28 [0.80, 2.04]
  1. $ Marginal totals for some variables may be different because of missing values.
  2. NS: Not significant.
  3. # Common model of logistic regression of parents’ age.
  4. * Common model of logistic regression of parent’s education.