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Table 4 Formula intake, human milk intake, gastrointestinal tolerance, and stool characteristics*

From: Calcium and fat metabolic balance, and gastrointestinal tolerance in term infants fed milk-based formulas with and without palm olein and palm kernel oils: a randomized blinded crossover study

  Metabolic period Tolerance period
Variables PALM NoPALM PALM NoPALM
  (n = 17)** (n = 17) (n = 16) (n = 17)
Average study formula intake, mL/kg/d 113 ± 20 114 ± 19 99 ± 31 103 ± 33
Average human milk intake, g/kg/d 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 94 ± 36 (n = 15) 81 ± 29 (n = 12)
Average numbers of feedings, #/d 6.3 ± 0.2 6.2 ± 0.1 4.6 ± 0.6 5.4 ± 0.9d
Spit-up/vomit, % of feedings 4.0 ± 4.8 3.5 ± 4.7 12.8 ± 25.5 13.9 ± 21.4
Stool frequency, # stools/d 3.4 ± 0.7 2.9 ± 0.9a 1.7 ± 0.6 1.9 ± 0.7
Mean rank stool consistency score (MRSC) 2.4 ± 0.3 3.0 ± 0.5b 3.3 ± 0.5 3.5 ± 0.6
Stool consistency, % of stools     
Watery 0 ± 0 0.5 ± 2 27.5 ± 19 26.9 ± 19.9
Loose/mushy 1.2 ± 3.5 19.2 ± 21.6c 19.1 ± 17.2 38.2 ± 14.2e
Soft 39.7 ± 26.5 58.9 ± 30.8 43.7 ± 18.9 32.6 ± 23.8
Formed 59.1 ± 25.7 21.4 ± 35.8a 21.6 ± 12.5 20.7 ± 16.3
Hard 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 10.8 ± 4.9 0 ± 0
Total stool production, g/kg/day 5.2 ± 2.3 4.2 ± 2.7   
Stool moisture content, % 82.8 ± 2.6 84.8 ± 6.5   
  1. *Values are means ± SD.
  2. **Sample sizes (n) for each column are in parenthesis except where noted to be different.
  3. MRSC score: 5 = watery, 4 = loose/mushy, 3 = soft, 2 = formed, 1 = hard (higher is softer).
  4. a = p <0.036; b = p = 0.001; c = Significant carryover effect (p = 0.077) Period I only, PALM = 0.9 ± 2.8 & NoPALM = 8.3 ± 11.7 (NS at p = 0.122); d = p = 0.005; e = p = 0.002.