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Table 3 Intake and absorption of calcium and fat*

From: Calcium and fat metabolic balance, and gastrointestinal tolerance in term infants fed milk-based formulas with and without palm olein and palm kernel oils: a randomized blinded crossover study

Variables Metabolic crossover phase
  PALM NoPALM
  (n = 17) (n = 17)
CALCIUM   
Calcium Intake, mg/kg/day 48.3 ± 8.9 72.7 ± 11.8a
Stool calcium, mg/kg/day 27.9 ±10.1 30.3 ± 14.7
Calcium absorbed, mg/kg/day 20.4 ± 9.6 42.4 ± 14.6b
Calcium absorption, % 42.1 ±19.2 58.8 ± 16.7c
Urinary calcium, mg/kg/day 1.69 ± 0.85 1.43 ± 0.77
Calcium retention, mg/kg/day 18.7 ± 9.4 41.0 ± 14.5a
FAT   
Fat intake, g/kg/day 4.7 ± 0.9 4.5 ± 0.7
Stool fat, g/kg/day 0.22 ± 0.08 0.14 ± 0.06d
Fat absorbed, g/kg/day 4.52 ± 0.85 4.33 ± 0.73
Fat absorption, % 95.1 ± 1.5 96.9 ± 1.2e
  1. *Values are means ± SD.
  2. a = p <0.001; b = p = 0.009; c = p = 0.023, but using calcium intake as covariate yielded p = 0.104; d = Significant carryover effect (p = 0.071), therefore, valid period I significant difference (p = 0.027).
  3. e = Significant carryover effect (p = 0.059), therefore, valid period I significant difference (p = 0.020).