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Table 1 Approximate composition of study formula products (per 100 g of powder)

From: Calcium and fat metabolic balance, and gastrointestinal tolerance in term infants fed milk-based formulas with and without palm olein and palm kernel oils: a randomized blinded crossover study

Nutrient* PALM NoPALM Brazil human milk
    Referencea
Energy, kcal 519 513  
Protein, g 9.5 11  
Carbohydrate, g 57.9 55  
Fat, g 27.7 28  
Palm olein oil (%) 44   
High oleic sunflower oil (%)   41.4  
Palm kernel oil (%) 21.7   
Coconut oil (%)   29.6  
Soy oil (%)   27.6  
Canola oil 18.5   
Corn oil 10.9   
Milk fat 2.8   
Others 2.1b 1.4c  
Fatty acids (g/100 g Fat)d    
16:0 21.95 7.37 17.3 ± 2.2
16:1n-7 0.21 0.09 1.99 ± 0.74
18:0 3.34 3.06 5.3 ± 1.26
18:1n9 40.22 43.22 25.0 ± 3.46
18:2n-6 16.41 19.0 20.3 ± 6.48
18:3n-3 2.02 1.57 1.43 ± 0.66
20:4n-6 0.23 0.42 0.53 ± 0.14
20:5n-3 0.05 0.00 Trace
22:6n-3 0.23 0.16 0.14 ± 0.05
Minerals    
Calcium, mg 279e 424e  
Phosphorus, mg 160 216  
Magnesium, mg 36 31.0  
Vitamins    
D, μg 7.8 8.6  
  1. *Values are manufacturer’s label claims, except where stated.
  2. aSiloa MHL et al. [17].
  3. bDocosahexaenoic acid (DHA), Arachidonic acid (ARA) and soy lecithin.
  4. cDHA, and ARA.
  5. dAnalytical values for fatty acids.
  6. eInvestigator’s analytical values for calcium.