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Table 2 Required exposure time needed to investigate NSAID safety in children for ten potential adverse events with varying incidence rates considering a weak, moderate or strong association

From: Population-based analysis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use among children in four European countries in the SOS project: what size of data platforms and which study designs do we need to assess safety issues?

Event type IR/100,000 PY Weak association Moderate association Strong association
(RR = 2) (RR = 4) (RR = 6)
Required exposure (PY) Drugs Expan-sion Required exposure (PY) Drugs Expan-sion Required exposure (PY) Drugs Expan-sion
    N (%)    N (%)    N (%)  
Asthma exacerbation 82.12 9,788 1 (2.2) 0 1,499 4 (8.9) 0 669 6 (13.3) 0
Anaphylactic shock 4.29 187,358 0 (0) 4 28,687 1 (2.2) 1 12,809 1 (2.2) 0
Upper gastrointestinal complication 2.64 303,990 0 (0) 7 46,545 0 (0) 1 20,782 1 (2.2) 0
Stroke 2.07 388,410 0 (0) 9 59,471 0 (0) 1 26,554 1 (2.2) 1
Heart failure 1.57 511,927 0 (0) 12 78,384 0 (0) 2 34,998 1 (2.2) 1
Acute renal failure 1.40 573,919 0 (0) 13 87,875 0 (0) 2 39,236 1 (2.2) 1
Stevens–Johnson syndrome 0.56 1,438,097 0 (0) 34 220,194 0 (0) 5 98,315 0 (0) 2
Acute liver failure 0.46 1,741,369 0 (0) 41 266,629 0 (0) 6 119,048 0 (0) 3
Acute myocardial infarction 0.12 6,918,411 0 (0) 162 1,059,310 0 (0) 25 472,974 0 (0) 11
Reye’s syndrome 0.02 42,663,537 0 (0) 998 6,532,413 0 (0) 153 2,916,676 0 (0) 68
  1. IR: incidence rate; RR: relative risk; PY: Person years.
  2. Drugs N (%): Number of drugs that have enough PY of exposure in the SOS platform to detect a potential signal for the respective event of interest (in brackets the proportion of NSAIDs with enough PY exposure of all 45 NSAIDs).
  3. Expansion: magnitude of enlargement of PY exposure in the SOS platform necessary for assessment of each safety outcome for ibuprofen (exposed person time 42,768 PY) given the specified relative risk that should be detected with α<0.05 (one-sided) and ß = 0.20.