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Table 3 Predictors of HIV seropositivity in study population and their sensitivity and specificity

From: HIV infection in severely malnourished children in Kumasi, Ghana: a cross-sectional prospective study

Clinical variable Sensitivity% (95% CI) Specificity% (95% CI) PPV% (95% CI) NPV% (95% CI)
Prolonged diarrhoea 23.9 (14.3 - 35.9) 94.4 ( 90.0-97.3) 61.5 (40.6 - 79.8) 76.8 (70.7 - 82.2)
Chronic cough 40.3 (28.5 - 53.0) 95.5 (91.4 - 98.1) 77.1 (59.9 - 89.6) 81.0 (75.1 - 86.1)
Prolonged fever 46.3 (34.0 - 58.9) 92.2 (87.2 - 95.7) 68.9 (53.4 - 81.8) 82.1 (76.1 - 87.1)
Oral thrush 68.7 (56.2-79.4) 82.1 (75.7-87.4) 59.0 (47.3-70.0) 87.5 (81.5-92.1)
Generalised lymphadenopathy 44.8 (32.6-57.4) 98.3 (95.2-99.7) 90.9 (75.7-98.1) 82.6 (76.9-87.5)
Sensitivities and specificities of a clinical algorithm consisting of above variables
No of parameters identified Sensitivity% Specificity% Correctly Classified%
≥ 1 92.5 72.1 77.6  
≥ 2 68.7 92.2 85.8  
≥ 3 41.7 98.3 82.9  
≥ 4 16.4 100.0 77.2  
5 4.8 100.0 74.0  
  1. PPV - Positive predictive value.
  2. NPV - Negative predictive value.