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Table 1 Association of clinical features with HIV seropositivity (both exposed and infected)

From: HIV infection in severely malnourished children in Kumasi, Ghana: a cross-sectional prospective study

  HIV status n (%)    
Clinical variable Negative Positive RR (95% CI) P-value
  n-179 n-67   
Fever 142 (79.3) 56 (83.6) 1.1 (0.9 - 1.2) 0.454
*Prolonged fever 14 (7.8) 31 (46.3) 5.9 (3.4 - 10.4) < 0.001
Diarrhoea 80 (44.7) 33 (49.3) 1.1 (0.8 - 1.5) 0.523
*Prolonged diarrhoea 10 (5.5) 16 (23.9) 4.3 (2.0 - 8.9) < 0.001
Cough 64 (35.8) 39 (58.2) 1.6 (1.2 - 2.2) < 0.001
*Chronic cough 8 (4.5) 27 (40.3) 9.0 (4.3 - 18.8) < 0.001
Poor Feeding 134 (74.9) 57 (85.1) 1.1 (1.0 - 1.3) 0.087
Lethargy/altered consciousness 85 (47.5) 46 (68.7) 1.4 (1.2 - 1.8) 0.003
Vomiting 76 (42.5) 39 (58.2) 1.4 (1.1 - 1.8) 0.028
Fast/difficult breathing 41 (22.9) 17 (25.4) 1.1 (0.7 - 1.8) 0.685
Pallor 82 (45.8) 24 (35.8) 0.8 (0.5 - 1.1) 0.159
Hepatomegaly 56 (31.3) 32 (47.8) 1.5 (1.1 - 2.1) 0.016
Oral thrush 32 (17.9) 46 (68.7) 3.8 (2.7 - 5.5) < 0.001
Skin rash 20 (11.2) 17 (25.4) 2.3 (1.3 - 4.1) 0.006
Generalised lymphadenopathy 3 (1.7) 30 (44.8) 26.7 (8.4 - 84.6) < 0.001
Splenomegaly 28 (15.6) 15 (22.4) 1.4 (0.8 - 2.5) 0.215
  1. *Duration lasting 14 days or longer.
  2. n = number.
  3. RR = Relative risk.