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Table 1 Association between caries status and child and caregiver characteristics

From: Vitamin D status of children with severe early childhood caries: a case–control study

Variable Overall value Caries status P value
S-ECC Caries-free
N (%) 95% CI N (%) 95% CI
Child
Child’s age (Months) 40.8 ± 14.1 42.0 ± 11.9 / 39.4 ± 16.3 / 0.14
Sex*       
Male 136 70 (51.5) 43.1,59.9 66 (48.5) 40.1,56.9 0.37
Female 130 74 (56.9) 48.4,65.4 56 (43.1) 34.6,51.6  
Height (cm) 98.4 ± 9.7 99.3 ± 8.1 / 97.3 ± 11.1 / 0.10
Weight (kg) 16.4 ± 3.7 17.0 ± 3.3 / 15.8 ± 4.0 / 0.01
Skin colour*       
Dark/Mid-colour 116 76 (65.6) 56.9,74.2 40 (34.5) 25.8,43.1 0.001
Light 150 68 (45.3) 37.4,53.3 82 (54.7) 46.7,62.6  
Multivitamin Use*       
Yes 143 76 (53.1) 45.0,61.3 67 (46.9) 38.7,55.0 0.73
No 123 68 (55.3) 46.5,64.1 55 (44.7) 35.9,53.5  
Age started cleaning mouth (Months) 12.9 ± 8.6 14.5 ± 9.5 / 10.9 ± 7.1 / <0.001
Mean age at first dental visit (Months) 26.2 ± 11.8 27.0 ± 11.9 / 24.7 ± 11.7 / 0.17
Breast-fed*       
Yes 204 93 (45.6) 38.8,52.4 111 (54.4) 48.0,61.0 <0.001
No 61 50 (82.0) 72.3,91.6 11 (18.0) 8.4,27.7  
Bottle-fed*       
Yes 194 114 (58.8) 51.8,65.7 80 (41.2) 34.3,48.2 0.01
No 71 29 (40.8) 29.4,52.3 42 (59.2) 47.7,70.6  
Parent/Caregiver
Caregiver status       
Mother 247 132 (53.4) 47.2,59.7 115 (46.6) 40.0,53.0 0.62
Father 15 9 (60.0) 35.2,84.8 6 (40.0) 15.2,64.8  
Other 4 3 (75.0) 32.6,117.4 1 (25.0) -17.4, 67.4  
Graduated high school*       <0.001
Grade 12 or higher 197 86 (43.7) 36.7,50.6 111 (56.3) 49.4,63.3  
< Grade 12 66 55 (83.3) 74.0,92.0 11 (16.7) 7.7,25.7  
Afford dental care*       
Yes 222 123 (55.4) 48.9,61.9 99 (44.6) 38.1,51.1 0.28
No 41 19 (46.3) 331.1,61.6 22 (53.7) 38.0,69.0  
Receives social assistance*       <0.001
Yes 103 81 (78.6) 70.7,86.6 22 (21.4) 13.4,29.3  
No 158 61 (38.6) 31.0,46.2 97 (61.4) 53.8,69.0  
Yearly household income*       <0.001
<$28 000 119 85 (71.4) 63.3,79.5 34 (28.6) 20.5,36.7  
>$28 000 134 47 (35.1) 27.0,43.0 87 (64.9) 56.8,73.0  
  1. S-ECC = Severe Early Childhood Caries.
  2. †t-test, *chi-square.
  3. 95% CI = 95% Confidence Intervals.