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Table 2 Adjusted differences in behaviors between intervention and combined control communities after 2-year intervention period

From: Changes in diet and physical activity resulting from the Shape Up Somerville community intervention

  Baseline After intervention Pre–post change: adjusted difference1 Model properties
Behavior Control group Intervention group Control group Intervention group
  n Mean (SD) n Mean (SD) n Mean (SD) n Mean (SD) Effect (95% CI) p-value additional covariates R2
Fruit & vegetable (servings/day) 317 3.1 (1.5) 103 3.5 (1.6) 317 3.4 (1.6) 103 3.7 (1.8) 0.16 (-06,0.38) 0.09 parental foreign born status, # siblings 0.18
Sugar-sweetened beverages (ounces/day) 265 6.5 (6.0) 72 6.1 (6.3) 265 7.6 (7.0) 72 5.5 (6.7) -2.00 (-3.76,-.25) 0.04 # rules 0.21
Sports (# per year) 343 2.9 (2.8) 111 3.6 (2.9) 343 3.4 (2.7) 111 4.0 (2.9) 0.20 (0.06,0.33) 0.02   0.21
Walk to/from school (# trips per week) 248 2.7 (4.0) 87 3.5 (4.1) 248 2.6 (3.9) 87 3.9 (4.2) 0.65 (-0.53,1.82) 0.14 parent marital status, maternal BMI 0.20
TV time (hrs/day) 325 2.2 (1.1) 104 1.6 (1.1) 325 2.2 (1.0) 104 1.7 (1.2) -0.24 (-0.51,0.04) 0.06 # rules 0.27
Total screen time (hrs/day) 332 3.8 (1.8) 106 2.7 (1.6) 332 3.9 (1.9) 106 3.0 (2.2) -0.24 (0.42,0.06) 0.03 parent marital status, # siblings, # rules 0.22
TV in bedroom2 (% yes) 250 50.4% 85 29.4% 250 54.8% 85 31.8% 0.39 ( 0.11,0.89) 0.13 child weight category, # siblings, maternal BMI --4
Dinner with TV3 (% not very much/never) 337 61.4% 110 73.6% 337 62.0% 110 71.8% OR 0.94 (0.88, 1.00) 0.06   --4
  1. 1All models adjusted for sex, age, ethnicity, primary language in the home, baseline value, and clustering by community. Additional covariates that were unbalanced between study groups, which demonstrated significant correlation with outcomes are also added to the model. These included parent marital status, parental foreign born status, number of siblings, maternal BMI, and rules.
  2. 2In the regression model to obtain the intervention effect, the dependent variable is a 3-level ordinal variable: -1 (acquired a TV in bedroom), 0 (no change), 1 (TV removed from bedroom).
  3. 3The outcome is dichotomous. Adjusted difference is reported as an odds ratio. OR < 1 indicates that those in the intervention were less likely to watch TV with dinner not very much/never at the end of 2 years.
  4. 4R-squared values were not calculated for the ordinal or dichotomous variables.