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Table 2 Policies and reported practices towards pain management in children

From: Pain management policies and practices in pediatric emergency care: a nationwide survey of Italian hospitals

  At triage In ER
  n (%) n (%)
Pain assessment:   
  Never 0 (0.0) 1 (5.3)
  Sometimes 10 (52.6) 10 (52.6)
  Always 9 (47.4) 8 (42.1)
Use of algometric scales:   
  No 6 (31.6) 10 (52.6)
  Yes 13 (68.4) 9 (47.4)
Results of pain assessment are recorded:   
  No 5 (26.3) 7 (36.8)
  Yes 14 (73.7) 12 (63.2)
Availability of protocols for pain treatment:   
  No 11 (57.9) 10 (52.6)
  Yes 8 (42.1) 9 (47.4)
Pain level contributes to priority determination at triage:   
  No 11 (57.9)  
  Yes 8 (42.1)  
Use of EMLA cream if blood sampling is anticipated:   
  Never/almost never (<10% of cases) 12 (63.1)  
  Sometimes (10-50% of cases) 5 (26.3)  
  Often/Always (>50% of cases) 2 (10.6)  
Analgesic drugs mentioned in protocols (when available):*   
  Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)   10 (52.6)
  Paracetamol   10 (52.6)
  Opioids   6 (31.6)
  Adjuvants   5 (26.3)
Pain reassessment:   
  Never/almost never (<10% of cases)   2 (10.5)
  Sometimes (10-50% of cases)   6 (31.6)
  Often (51-90% of cases)   8 (42.1)
  Always/almost always (>90% of cases)   3 (15.8)
Parental role in the emergency room:*   
  Entering with the child   19 (100)
  Being present during painful procedures   17 (89.5)
  Holding the child during blood sampling   11 (57.9)
  1. *Answers were not mutually exclusively.