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Table 1 Contingent table of manual intramuscular needle placement checked by PSRM observations versus the corresponding observations with ES

From: Study protocol: precision of a protocol for manual intramuscular needle placement checked by passive stretching and relaxing of the target muscle in the lower extremity during BTX-A treatment in children with spastic cerebral palsy, as verified by means of electrical stimulation

  Electrical stimulation  
ES-true ES-false
Protocol for manual intramuscular needle placement checked by PSRM PSRM-positive True positive False positive PPV or precision
PSRM-negative True negative False negative NNP
  Sensitivity Specificity Accuracy
  1. This table will be used to calculate the positive predictive value (PPV), with its confidence interval of 95%, as the main objective for each individual muscle and muscle injection location. The positive predictive value or precision is defined as the proportion of true positive results against all the positive results, both true positives and false positives. In addition, negative predictive value (NPV), sensitivity and specificity will also be computed, with their confidence intervals of 95%.