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Table 4 Comparison of healthcare utilization and cost estimates (unadjusted) for medical, surgical NEC and matched control groups from 6 months to 3 years of age

From: Long term healthcare costs of infants who survived neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis: a retrospective longitudinal study among infants enrolled in Texas Medicaid

Age -> 6-12 months 12-24 months 24-36 months
  Controls Medical NEC Surgical NEC Controls Medical NEC Surgical NEC Controls Medical NEC Surgical NEC
N -> 2109 141 62 1326 102 42 951 70 35
Mean Hospital 0.1 (0.4) 0.2 (1)** 1 (1)** 0 (1) 0 (0.5) 1 (2)** 0 (1) 0 (0.3) 1 (1)**
admissions a (SD)
IQR 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1
90th percentile 0 1 2 1 1 3 0 0 1
Mean Hospital days b (SD) 1 (9) 4 (17)** 16 (33)** 1 (4) 1 (4) 10 (33)** 0.5 (3) 0.5 (3) 2 (6)**
IQR 0 0 10 0 0 4 0 0 2
90th percentile 2 6 59 2 3 13 0 0 3
Inpatient costs (SD) b 2,922 (28,056) 8,068 (33,452) 35,867 (79,511)** 1,942 (12,319) 2,557 (9,823) 23,102 (71,101)** 1,046 (8,737) 1,039 (6,395) 7,842 (29,930)**
IQR 0 0 24,150 0 0 7,589 0 0 2,615
90th percentile 2,167 8,769 126,901 3,435 6,296 26,085 0 0 11,786
Total home healthcare 741 (5,575) 2,882 (14,251)** 3,564 (9,895)** 2,539 (17,372) 3,102 (16,412) 11,364 (34,901)** 2,237 (14,806) 2,380 (13,167) 9,485 (23,184)**
b costs (SD)
IQR 0 0 1,741 0 0 3,533 0 0 4,947
90th percentile 160 1,536 7,761 184 386 36,309 199 128 31,976
Total ambulatory care 2,332 (7,388) 5,129 (16,391)** 8,764 (14,920)** 5,961 (21,091) 6,392 (18,719) 21,715 (38,769)** 4,346 (19,294) 3,946 (14,009) 16,461 (34,291)**
costs b,c (SD)
IQR 1,247 3,414 10,572 2,154 4,144 21,573 1,372 1,874 11,320
90th percentile 5,958 10,846 20,126 14,984 17,382 61,962 5,691 4,357 61,559
Overall healthcare 5,598(30,654) 13,610 (38,264)** 45,213 (87,497)** 8,726 (28,039) 9,856 (23,111) 46,378 (91,535)** 6,279 (24,018) 5,809 (16,966) 26,055 (52,637)**
IQR 2,238 7,157 41,957 3,987 8,921 32,077 2,466 1,706 17,753
90th percentile 8,661 25,432 143,132 18,075 22,827 106,997 8,779 10,290 84,338
  1. SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range (difference between the 75th and 25th percentile estimates).
  2. *p<0.05 and **p<0.01.
  3. a) Outcome was assumed to be negative binomial distributed while evaluating statistical significance of difference estimates between NEC versus control groups. b) Outcome was assumed to be t-distributed while evaluating statistical significance of difference estimates between NEC versus control groups. c) Total ambulatory care costs included costs of laboratory, medical consultation, preventive care, ambulatory surgery, home health services and professional payments. Overall healthcare costs include inpatient, ambulatory as well as prescription medication costs.
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