Skip to main content

Table 1 Study design overview

From: Environmental determinants of islet autoimmunity (ENDIA): a pregnancy to early life cohort study in children at-risk of type 1 diabetes

Sample (parameter) Description Purpose 1sttrimester † 2ndtrimester 3rdtrimester 1-2 days postnatal 3-5 days postnatal 3 m 6 m 9, 15, 21, 30 m 12, 18, 24, 36 m Proband
Informed consent - Informed consent *          *
Demographics (including ancestry, socioeconomic status) - Maternal          
Paternal          
Infant          
Proband           *
Medical/obstetric history - Maternal * * *        
Paternal          
Proband           *
OGTT results    *        
Pregnancy complications          
Labour and delivery          
Congenital abnormalities          
Anthropometry - Height, Weight, BMI * * *   *      
Weight z, length z, BMI z     *   * * * *  
Waist circumference     *   * * * *  
Lifestyle questionnaire * * *    * * * *  
Blood A: Serum (red) AutoAbs: Melbourne    * *Δ   * * * *  
AutoAbs: Adelaide    * *Δ   * * * *  
Resistance: adiponectin, hsCRP, C-peptide, insulin, glucose * * * *Δ   * * * *  
Metabolome/lipidome * * * *Δ   * * * *  
B: Serum (red) Vitamin D (25 OHD) / tTGAb / C-peptide / glucose 25 OHD tTGAb 25 OHD tTGAb 25 OHD tTGAb 25 OHD tTGAb C-peptideΔ   25 OHD tTGAb tTGAb 25 OHD tTGAb tTGAb glucose (12, 24, 36 m)  
C: LH (green) Cytokines/chemokines (innate immunity)       * * * *  
D: K-EDTA (purple) Buffy coat (epigenome) * * * *Δ   * * * *  
RBC * * * *Δ   * * * *  
Virology * * * *ΔΩ   * * * *  
DHA, EPA, resolvins, protectins, prostaglandin E2 * * * *Δ   *   *   
Advanced glycation end products * * * *Δ    *   *  
Haemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) *†† *†† *†† *Δ     
E: K-EDTA (purple) HLA typing     *Δ       *
F: CPT sodium citrate (blue/black) PBMCs (adaptive immunity)     *Δ    * * *  
Urine Maternal: urine pot Infant: collection bag Metabolome/lipidome * * *   * * * * *  
Advanced glycation end products * * *   *   *   *  
Stool Maternal: EasySampler Infant: stool collection kit Microbiome * * *   * * * * *  
Virology * * *   * * * * *  
Metabolome/lipidome * * *   * * * * *  
Saliva Oragene kit SNP typing       *     *
Tongue dorsum ESwab swab Microbiome * * *   * * * * *  
Buccal mucosa ESwab swab Microbiome * * *   * * * * *  
Throat UTM Virology * * *   * * * * *  
Nasal ESwab swab Microbiome * * *   * * * * *  
Skin (inner elbows) ESwab swab Microbiome    * * m&i * m&i * m&i * m&i * *  
Vagina ESwab swab Microbiome    *        
Colostrum (day 0–3) Colostrum collection kit Microbiome     *       
Metabolome/lipidome     *       
Breast milk Milk collection kit Microbiome      *  
Metabolome/lipidome      * *V3 ζ   
Diet Maternal diet evaluation tools DQES version 2    *       
Infant diet evaluation tools Infant diary (birth-6 m)       * *    
Infant diary (6-12 m)         * V3 * V4  
24 hour recall (12 – 24 months)         * V5, V7 * V6  
Australian Toddler Eating Survey (>24 months)         * V9 * V8, V10  
  1. if available.
  2. ψ or at first opportunity.
  3. †† if mother has T1D.
  4. ϕ if persistent islet autoantibodies are detected.
  5. Δ cord blood.
  6. Ω using Guthrie Card if cord blood sample not taken.
  7. “m&i” maternal and infant.
  8. ζ if breast feeding.