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Table 2 Characteristics of the target population according to birth weight, n = 107

From: Birth-weight, insulin levels, and HOMA-IR in newborns at term

  Overall population SGA AGA LGA   
  n = 107 n = 13 n = 72 n = 22 F p
Family history of diabetes, n (%) 45 (40.1) 8 (61.5) 26 (36.1) 11 (50.0) - 0.13
Parity 2.2 ± 1.0 2.3 ± 1.2 2.0 ± 1.0 2.4 ± 1.0 0.94 0.39
Mother’s age, years 25.0 ± 5.0 23.0 ± 6.1 24.8 ± 5.2 26.6 ± 3.9 2.14 0.12
Weight before pregnancy, kg 61.8 ± 11.7 55.9 ± 11.8 61.1 ± 10.6 67.5 ± 13.2 4.60 0.01*, **,†
Weight gain through pregnancy, kg 13.0 ± 5.2 11.1 ± 6.7 12.8 ± 5.3 14.7 ± 3.2 1.95 0.14
Body mass index before pregnancy, k/m2 24.1 ± 4.6 22.1 ± 5.1 23.9 ± 4.0 25.8 ± 5.5 2.8 0.06
Gestational age, weeks 39.1 ± 1.8 39.0 ± 0.8 39.3 ± 1.2 39.8 ± 0.9 2.22 0.11
Newborn’s birth weight, g 3312 ± 678 2083 ± 356 3270 ± 380 4175 ± 197 149.3 <0.001*,**,†,‡,§
Newborn’s plasma glucose at birth, mmol/L 5.9 ± 2.7 7.2 ± 5.5 5.8 ± 2.0 5.2 ± 2.2 2.15 0.15
Newborn’s insulin at birth, μU/mL 7.1 ± 4.3 6.7 ± 4.5 6.3 ± 3.7 9.6 ± 4.9 5.32 0.001
HOMA-IR index 1.9 ± 1.5 1.9 ± 1.4 1.7 ± 1.3 2.3 ± 1.5 1.63 0.04
  1. Values are median ± standard deviation.
  2. SGA, small-gor-gestational age; AGA, appropriate-for-gestational age; LGA, large-for-gestational age.
  3. *p < 0.01 between SGA and LGA. **p < 0.005 between SGA and the overall population. p < 0.005 between LGA and the overall population.
  4. p < 0.05 between LGA and AGA. §p = 0.04 between SGA and AGA.