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Table 2 Comparing Characteristics of Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN), Age 5-17 Years, by Shared Decision Making Pattern 1

From: Shared decision making and behavioral impairment: a national study among children with special health care needs

Variable Included Excluded Pvalue comparing Included vs. excluded2
Number of children in sample 2454 174  
Number of children represented in population 10.2 million 641,000  
Percent represented 94% 6%  
Demographic Characteristics % %  
Age (Years)
  5-12 70.0 64.1 0.2
  13-17 30.0 35.9  
Female 44.0 44.3 0.9
Race
  White 78.4 69.6 0.009
  Black 16.1 18.5  
  Other 5.5 11.9  
Hispanic 12.5 16.9 0.1
Region
  Northeast 19.1 8.1 0.02
  Midwest 22.8 22.7  
  South 37.8 49.2  
  West 20.3 20.0  
Parental Education
  No Degree 10.3 17.8 0.1
  High School Complete 46.4 48.2  
  Bachelor's Degree 16.7 12.8  
  Graduate Level Degree 11.9 11.6  
  Other Degree 14.7 9.6  
Poverty
  Poor 18.4 22.2 0.007
  Near Poor 5.9 8.9  
  Low Income 15.0 24.9  
  Middle Income 31.5 27.5  
  High Income 29.2 16.5  
Insurance Coverage
  Any private 65.4 52.9 0.01
  Other 34.6 47.1  
Clinical Characteristics % %  
General Health Status3
  Increasing 20.4 20.1 0.9
  Unchanged 59.8 60.4  
  Decreasing 19.8 19.5  
Diagnosed with ADHD 19.8 8.3 0.001
Variable Included Excluded P value comparing Included vs. excluded 2
Diagnosed with Asthma 20.1 19.3 0.8
Any psychotropic medication use4
  None 70.7 85.6 0.01
  Year 1 only 2.9 2.8  
  Year 2 only 6.1 3.9  
  Both years 20.3 6.7  
Any mental health services use5
  None 76.5 68.8 <0.001
  Year 1 only 6.1 20.1  
  Year 2 only 6.8 5.8  
  Both years 10.6 5.3  
  1. 1Children excluded from the study lacked a usual source of care, had no response to any of the items used to create the SDM measure, or lacked a response to items from the Columbia Impairment Scale used to assess behavioral impairment.
  2. 2 P values calculated by chi-square tests with robust variance estimates accounting for the weighted, clustered, and stratified longitudinal MEPS survey design.
  3. 3General Health Status determined using the overall score from 5 Likert-scaled items (recoded so that a score of 5 indicates the best health and a score of 1 the worst health) derived from the Child Health Questionnaire, General Health Subscale (child seems less healthy than other children, child has never been seriously ill, child usually catches whatever is going around, expect child will have a healthy life, respondent worries more than is usual about child’s health). For each year, the overall score was categorized as (low (<15), medium (15 to <20), or high (≥20)).
  4. 4 Psychotropic medications considered included stimulants, antidepressants, antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, as well as other psychotropic medications such as alpha agonists.
  5. 5 Mental health services include visits to a psychiatrist, psychologist, or other mental health professional.