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Table 3 Adjusted and unadjusted odds of lumbar puncture for EONS, by payer, hospital type and region, 2003–2009

From: Variation in lumbar punctures for early onset neonatal sepsis: a nationally representative serial cross-sectional analysis, 2003-2009

  2003   2006   2009  
  Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted* OR (95% CI) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted* OR (95% CI) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted* OR (95% CI)
Payer type
Private insurance ref ref ref ref ref ref
Medicaid 1.3 (1.1–1.5) 1.2 (1.1–1.4) 1.4 (1.2–1.6) 1.4 (1.2–1.5) 1.3 (1.2–1.5) 1.2 (1.1–1.4)
Uninsured 1.2 (0.9–1.7) 1.3 (0.9–1.9) 1.3 (1.0–1.6) 1.4 (1.1–1.7) 1.0 (0.8–1.3) 1.0 (0.8–1.3)
Other 2.2 (1.1–4.3) 2.2 (1.1–4.1) 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 1.1 (0.9–1.5)
Hospital type
Rural ref ref ref ref ref ref
Urban 2.4 (1.9–3.0) 1.6 (1.3–2.0) 2.7 (2.2–3.3) 1.7 (1.3–2.1) 2.6 (2.2–3.2) 1.8 (1.4–2.3)
Non-teaching ref ref ref ref ref ref
Teaching 2.1 (1.8–2.6) 1.5 (1.2–2.0) 2.2 (1.9–2.6) 1.7 (1.4–2.0) 2.0 (1.7–2.5) 1.6 (1.4–2.0)
Non-children’s Hospital ref ref ref ref ref ref
Children’s Hospital 2.1 (1.6–2.9) 1.4 (0.95–2.0) 2.4 (1.8–3.3) 1.6 (1.1–2.3) 2.4 (1.7–3.3) 1.6 (1.1–2.3)
Hospital region
West ref ref ref ref ref ref
Midwest 1.3 (1.0–1.8) 1.4 (1.0–1.8) 1.3 (.95–1.8) 1.3 (0.9–1.9) 1.0 (0.7–1.5) 1.1 (0.8–1.6)
South 1.4 (1.1–1.9) 1.2 (0.9–1.7) 1.3 (1.0–1.8) 1.2 (0.9–1.7) 1.2 (0.8–1.6) 1.1 (0.8–1.5)
Northeast 2.2 (1.5–3.1) 1.9 (1.3–2.8) 2.0 (1.3–2.9) 1.7 (1.1–2.6) 1.5 (1.1–2.2) 1.4 (0.9–2.1)
  1. * adjusted for payer, hospital type, hospital region, income quartile of the newborn, respiratory diagnosis, any infection and temperature instability.
  2. Ref = reference category.