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Table 1 Characteristics of newborns with lumbar punctures being performed versus all other newborns in the United States, 2009

From: Variation in lumbar punctures for early onset neonatal sepsis: a nationally representative serial cross-sectional analysis, 2003-2009

Newborn Characteristics
  Term newborns with LP 13,694 All other term newborns 3,684,437
National Estimated Total Percent (95% CI) Percent (95% CI)
Gender
Female 43.1 (42.0–44.2) 48.6 (48.5–48.8)
Payer type
Medicaid 51.9 (49.4–54.4) 45.1 (43.8–46.4)
Private 41.3 (38.6–44.1) 47.8 (46.4–49.1)
Uninsured 3.9 (3.1–4.8) 4.4 (4.0–4.8)
Other 3.0 (2.3–3.9) 2.8 (2.5–3.0)
Income Quartile
First (<40 k, US$) 30.9 (27.7–34.2) 27.8 (26.5–29.0)
Second (40–49 k, US$) 24.2 (22.0–26.5) 26.2 (25.4–27.1)
Third (50–65 k, US$) 24.0 (22.4–25.7) 24.9 (24.1–25.7)
Fourth (>66 k, US$) 21.0 (17.2–25.4) 21.1 (19.9–22.5)
Hospital type
Urban 94.8 (93.6–95.7) 87.3 (86.6–87.9)
Teaching 60.8 (56.0–65.4) 43.1 (41.3–44.9)
Children’s 23.0 (17.0–30.3) 11.2 (9.2–13.6)
Hospital Region
South 38.5 (33.9–49.4) 38.4 (36.7–40.1)
Northeast 21.2 (17.8–25.1) 15.9 (14.8–17.0)
West 20.9 (16.0–26.8) 24.2 (22.9–25.4)
Midwest 19.4 (16.2–23.0) 21.6 (20.5–22.7)
Diagnosis
Any respiratory diagnosis 50.8 (49.0–52.5) 5.9 (5.8–6.1)
Any infection 49.2 (46.4–51.9) 1.3 (1.2–1.4)
Temperature instability 14.0 (12.7–15.3) 3.3 (3.1–3.5)
Meningitis 2.7 (2.2–3.3) 0.0017 (0.0012–0.0023)