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Table 4 Association between risk factors and birth defects

From: Prevalence of birth defects and risk-factor analysis from a population-based survey in Inner Mongolia, China

Risk factors b Chi-squre P-value RR RR95%CI
Ethnicity      
Hana 1.000
Mongolian −0.172 41.05 0.000 0.842 0.799-0.888
Other 0.008 0.01 0.905 1.008 0.888-1.138
Maternal age (years)      
<25 0.798 374.28 0.000 2.220 2.048-2.408
25-- 0.514 176.03 0.000 1.672 1.550-1.805
30-- 0.227 20.34 0.000 1.255 1.137-1.385
35--a 1.000
Smoking      
Noa 1.000
Yes −0.129 2.12 0.145 0.879 0.736-1.041
Drinking      
Noa 1.000
Yes 1.169 55.65 0.000 3.220 2.332-4.319
Time of pregnancy      
1 −1.769 1603.35 0.000 0.171 0.156-0.186
2 −1.017 579.74 0.000 0.362 0.333-0.393
3a 1.000
Parental consanguinity      
Noa 1.000
Yes 0.305 3.73 0.053 1.356 0.981-1.822
Familial inheritance history      
noa 1.000
yes 2.413 1480.85 0.000 11.165 9.852-12.600
Maternal education      
Less than high school 0.526 214.23 0.000 1.692 1.577-1.815
High school 0.059 1.17 0.279 1.061 0.952-1.180
More than high schoola 1.000
Living area      
Urbana 1.000
Rural 0.576 393.87 0.000 1.779 1.681-1.884
  1. a: reference.