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Table 2 Metabolic and other etiological diagnoses that respond to specific therapy

From: Infantile spasms (West syndrome): update and resources for pediatricians and providers to share with parents

Diagnosis Specific therapy
Pyridoxine-dependent seizures Pyridoxine
Phenylketonuria Diet
Maple syrup urine disease Diet
Biotinidase deficiency Biotin
Menkes disease Copper histidinate
Hyperammonemia disorders Possibly diet, depending on which disorder
Nonketotic hyperglycinuria Benzoate
Tumor Surgery
Arterial-venous malformation Surgery
Sturge-Weber syndrome Surgery if medications fail
Tuberous sclerosis complex Vigabatrin, ACTH (if vigabatrin fails), and possibly surgery if medications fail
Cortical dysplasias: focal cortical dysplasias, hemimegalencephaly Possible cortical resection if medications fail
Malformations of cortical development Epilepsy surgery
  1. Courtesy of Dr Shields.