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Table 2 Gender, age, diagnosis, species presence and microscopic evidence of biofilm and intracellular bacteria using Fluorescence In Situ hybridisation (FISH) in middle ear mucosal biopsies and effusions assayed using culture, PCR and FISH methods for pathogen detection.

From: Multi-species bacterial biofilm and intracellular infection in otitis media

      PCR FISH   
Child No. Sex
(Age, yr)
Ear Diagnosis Current Abx Culture Spn EUB Spn Hi Mcat Sau Biofilm Intracellular bacteria
Children with recurrent acute otitis media
4 F (1.4) R RAOM N - - + na + + na + +
5 M (1.8) L RAOM N na na + - + na na - +
6 F (3.2) L RAOM N na na + na + - na + +
7 M (6.1) L RAOM N + mixed + + + na - na - +
8 F (9.3) L RAOM, Cholesteatoma N na na + - na + na - -
Children with recurrent acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion
9 M (1.4) R RAOM, OME Y - - + na - + na + +
10 M (1.8) L RAOM, OME N + Spn, Mcat + + + na + na + +
11 F (1.8) L RAOM, OME Y - + + - + na na - +
12 F (3.5) L RAOM, OME N - - - na - - na - -
13 M (7.5) L RAOM, OME N - - + na + + na + +
14 F (8.9) L RAOM, OME N na na + + - na na + +
Children with otitis media with effusion
15 M (1.5) L OME N na na + - - na na + -
16 F (5.4) L OME N + CNS - + na - + na + +
17 F (6.0) L OME N + Sau - + na na - + + +
18 F (6.3) R OME N na na - - na - na - -
19 F (8.0) R OME N na na + - - na na + -
20 M (9.9) R OME N na na + + na + na + +
Control cochlear implant
21 F (1.6) L Sensorineural hearing loss N na na - - - na na - -
Positive from number tested (not including healthy control) 2/17 4/9 (44%) 3/9 (33%) 15/17 (88%) 4/10 (40%) 5/11 (45%) 7/12 (58%) 1/1 11/17 (64%) 12/17
(71%)
  1. Biopsies are from children undergoing ventilation tube insertion for COME and recurrent AOM as well as a negative control from a child with no history of middle ear disease undergoing cochlear implantation surgery.
  2. Abbreviations: EUB - eubacterial probe, Spn - S. pneumoniae (organism and probe), Hi - H. influenzae (organism and probe), Mcat - M. catarrhalis (organism and probe), Sau - S. aureus (organism and probe), CNS - Coagulase negative staphylococci (organism). na - Not available.