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Table 1 Comparison between randomization groups

From: Electronic and paper versions of a faces pain intensity scale: concordance and preference in hospitalized children

  Palm/Paper (N = 104) Paper/Palm (N = 98) Total (N = 202) p-value
Sex
   Female 50 (48.1%) 35 (35.7%) 85 (42.1%) 0.088a
   Male 54 (51.9%) 63 (64.3%) 117 (57.9%)  
Age (years)
   N 104 98 202  
   Mean (std) 8.16 (2.50) 8.43 (2.61) 8.29 (2.55) 0.476b
   Median 8.00 9.00 8.00  
   Min; Max 4.0; 12.0 4.0; 12.0 4.0; 12.0  
Age (3 categories)
   4-6 32 (30.8%) 28 (28.6%) 60 (29.7%) 0.922a
   7-9 33 (31.7%) 33 (33.7%) 66 (32.7%)  
   10-12 39 (37.5%) 37 (37.8%) 76 (37.6%)  
Ward where the patient was hospitalized
   Medicine 23 (22.1%) 13 (13.3%) 36 (17.8%) 0.140a
   Surgery 81 (77.9%) 85 (86.7%) 166 (82.2%)  
Analgesic levels *
   No analgesic 23 (22.1%) 17 (17.3%) 40 (19.8%) 0.015a
   Level 1 39 (37.5%) 25 (25.5%) 64 (31.7%)  
   Level 2 28 (26.9%) 25 (25.5%) 53 (26.2%)  
   Level 3 14 (13.5%) 31 (31.6%) 45 (22.3%)  
Analgesic treatment before assessment
   Yes 81 (77.9%) 81 (82.7%) 162 (80.2%) 0.480a
   No 23 (22.1%) 17 (17.3%) 40 (19.8%)  
Time interval between paper and palm administration (min.)
   N 104 98 202  
   Mean (std) 13.57 (6.19) 12.66 (4.74) 13.13 (5.54) 0.258b
   Median 13.00 12.00 12.00  
   Min; Max 1.0; 28.0 4.0; 27.0 1.0; 28.0  
Patient's Preference
   Preference Electronic 85 (89.5%) 74 (85.1%) 159 (87.4%) 0.383a
   Preference Paper 10 (10.5%) 13 (14.9%) 23 (12.6%)  
   'Does not know' 9 11 20  
  1. a : Fisher'exact test
  2. b : Wilcoxon test
  3. * Analgesic levels: reference to the three step analgesic ladder of WHO