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Table 6 Traditional treatment usage by seizure group.

From: Traditional and non-traditional treatments for autism spectrum disorder with seizures: an on-line survey

Treatment Overall Controls Clinical Seizures Subclinical Seizures
Anti-epileptic drug treatment
Valproic acid 31% 6% 39% 48% †,ns
Lamotrigine 22% 3% 27% 39%†, ns
Levetiracetam 18% 1% 23% 31% †,ns
Carbamazepine 18% 1% 26% 23% †,ns
Topiramate 17% 1% 25% 22% †,ns
Oxcarbazepine 16% 2% 22% 24% †,ns
Clonazepam 12% 3% 16% 13% †,ns
Phenytoin 10% 1% 13% 13% †,ns
Phenobarbital 10% 2% 14% 11% †,ns
Gabapentin 7% 1% 8% 12% †,ns
Zonisamide 7% 0% 10% 12% †,ns
Ethosuximide 4% 0% 4% ns 10% †, ns
Felbamate 4% 0% 5% 7% †,ns
Non-antiepileptic drug treatments
Vitamin B6 19% 27% 15% 20% ns,ns
Steroids 11% 21% 5% 14% ns, ns
Ketogenic diet 6% 0% 7% 13% †,ns
Intravenous Immunoglobulin 3% 1% 3% ns 7% ns,ns
Vagal Nerve Stimulator 3% 0% 4% ns 6% ns,ns
  1. †p < = 0.0001
  2. For each treatment listed, statistical comparisons were made between the clinical seizure group and the control group (superscript after the clinical seizure percentage), the subclinical seizure group and the control group (1st superscript after the subclinical seizure percentage) and between the clinical and subclinical seizure group (2nd superscript after the subclinical seizure percentage). There are 18 treatments and 3 comparisons for each treatments resulting in 54 comparisons. The Bonferroni correction results in an alpha of 0.05/54 = 0.0009, so we have set the alpha to p < = 0.0001 to be conservative.