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Table 1 Distribution of Birth Defects in the Treatment and Control Associated Groups

From: The effect of systematic pediatric care on neonatal mortality and hospitalizations of infants born with oral clefts

Birth Defect Type Control group Treatment group Total study sample
  Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
Abdominal wall defect 7 1.88 5 1.04 12 1.40
Anencephaly 9 2.41 5 1.04 14 1.64
Spina bifida 4 1.07 2 0.41 6 0.70
Brain defect 28 7.51 41 8.49 69 8.06
Cephalocele 3 0.80 8 1.66 11 1.29
Eye anomaly 14 3.75 22 4.55 36 4.21
Microtia 10 2.68 23 4.76 33 3.86
Congenital heart defect 32 8.58 48 9.94 80 9.35
Lung hypoplasia 1 0.27 2 0.41 3 0.35
Esophageal atresia 3 0.80 4 0.83 7 0.82
Gut anomaly 2 0.54 3 0.62 5 0.58
Genitalia defect 13 3.49 15 3.11 28 3.27
Kidney defect 7 1.88 23 4.76 30 3.50
Talipes 27 7.24 31 6.42 58 6.78
Polydactyly 26 6.97 17 3.52 43 5.02
Syndactyly 10 2.68 8 1.66 18 2.10
Limb reduction defect 7 1.88 17 3.52 24 2.80
Hip dislocation 1 0.27 2 0.41 3 0.35
Arthrogryposis 7 1.88 4 0.83 11 1.29
Axial defect 10 2.68 3 0.62 13 1.52
Hydrops 2 0.54 0 0.00 2 0.23
Situs inversus 1 0.27 0 0.00 1 0.12
Syndromes 24 6.43 17 3.52 41 4.79
Minor anomalies 90 24.13 143 29.61 233 27.22
Other anomalies 35 9.38 40 8.28 75 8.76
  1. The Table reports the distribution of all the other birth defects besides CL/P observed in the associated cases. Minor anomalies angioma, neonatal tooth, gum/tongue anomaly, undescended testes, nevus, micorgnathia and other minor anomalies. Other anomalies include other eye anomalies, anomalies of the neck, nose, trachea, skull shape and muscle. Also included are other unspecified birth defects (1 birth defect in the control group and 17 birth defects in the treatment group). The distributions of birth defect types between the treatment and control groups are different at p = 0.027 based on a chi-square test of independence. However, the test result should be viewed with caution given the very low frequencies of several birth defect types.