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Table 2 Logistic regression analysis of family-based factors associated with overweight among Pakistani primary school children (n = 1259)

From: Family-based factors associated with overweight and obesity among Pakistani primary school children

  Totala
(n = 1259)
Normal weightb (n = 943) Overweightc (n = 316) Crude OR
(95% CI)
P Value Adjusted OR
(95% CI)d
P Value
Family-based factors n (%) n (%) n (%)     
Parental education        
   High school or less 506 (40.2) 448 (88.5) 58 (11.5) Reference - Reference -
   College or higher 753 (59.8) 495 (65.7) 258 (34.3) 4.03 (2.95-5.50) < 0.001 2.54 (1.76-3.67) < 0.001
Parental working status        
   Father only 969 (77.0) 742 (76.6) 227 (23.4) Reference - Reference -
   Both parents 290 (23.0) 201 (69.3) 89 (30.7) 1.45 (1.08-1.94) 0.013 0.85 (0.62-1.16) 0.306
Siblings        
   ≤3 766 (60.8) 522 (68.1) 244 (31.9) 2.73 (2.04-3.66) < 0.001 1.75 (1.26-2.42) 0.001
   > 3 493 (39.2) 421 (85.4) 72 (14.6) Reference - Reference -
Persons in child's living room        
   ≤3 671 (53.3) 468 (69.7) 203 (30.3) 1.82 (1.40-2.37) < 0.001 1.11 (0.83-1.49) 0.480
   > 3 588 (46.7) 475 (80.8) 113 (19.2) Reference - Reference -
Neighborhood income        
   Low 358 (28.4) 316 (88.3) 42 (11.7) Reference - Reference -
   Middle 663 (52.7) 486 (73.3) 177 (26.7) 2.74 (1.90-3.95) < 0.001 1.39 (0.91-2.13) 0.129
   High 238 (18.9) 141 (59.2) 97 (40.8) 5.18 (3.43-7.82) < 0.001 2.13 (1.31-3.46) 0.002
  1. aThe model excludes under-nourished children having a BMI-for-age z-score of < -1SD relative to the World Health Organization reference 2007 (n = 601)
  2. b-1SD to +1SD BMI-for-age z-score relative to the World Health Organization reference 2007
  3. c > +1SD BMI-for-age z-score relative to the World Health Organization reference 2007 (includes obese children)
  4. dThe model is adjusted for age and gender