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Table 6 Sulfation, Methylation, Glutathione, and Oxidative Stress: The average levels measured in the Neurotypical group and the Autism Treatment and Autism Placebo groups (pre and post) who completed the study are reported below, along with their standard deviations.

From: Effect of a vitamin/mineral supplement on children and adults with autism

   Neuro-typicals
(n = 44)
Arizona Treatment Group
(n = 18)
Arizona Placebo Group
(n = 22)
    Pre Post % change p-value Pre Post % change p-value
Free Sulfate
(plasma)
umol/
g-protein
4.09
+/- 2.3
1.60
+/- 0.6
2.93
+/- 2.0
+83% 0.008 1.30
+/- 0.4
1.98
+/- 1.8
+52% 0.08
Total Sulfate
(plasma)
umol/
g-protein
1566
+/- 384
1150
+/- 254
1346
+/- 236
+17% 0.001 1093
+/- 184
1163
+/- 194
+6% 0.06
SAM
(RBC)
umol/dl 228.4
+/- 12
218
+/- 17
230
+/- 16
+6% 0.003 213
+/- 12
218
+/- 13
+3% 0.005
SAH
(RBC)
umol/dl 42.6
+/- 4.4
40.7
+/- 7.4
41.4
+/- 5.0
+2% n.s. 48.5
+/- 6.9
45.4
+/- 7.1
-6% 0.03
Uridine
(plasma)
10-6 M 7.9
+/- 2.7
16.2
+/- 9.5
10.4
+/- 4.7
-36% 0.008 16.4
+/- 6.9
14.5
+/- 5.8
-11% 0.06
Adenosine
(plasma)
10-8 M 20.6
+/- 3.4
21.2
+/- 5.3
21.0
+/- 3.2
-1% n.s. 24.5
+/- 6.2
22.8
+/- 4.2
-7% 0.05
Inosine
(plasma)
10-6 M 3.83
+/- 0.9
3.49
+/- 1.0
3.83
+/- 0.6
+10% 0.07 3.55
+/- 0.9
3.49
+/- 1.0
-2% n.s.
Reduced plasma glutathione (GSH) nmol/ml 4.09
+/- 0.79
3.27
+/- 0.59
3.84
+/- 0.61
+17% 0.0008 3.25
+/- 0.38
3.40
+/- 0.42
+5% n.s.
Oxidized glutathione (GSSG) nmol/ml 0.362
+/- 0.10
0.467
+/- 0.12
0.403
+/- 0.09
-14% 0.02 0.465
+/- 0.14
0.431
+/- 0.11
-7% n.s.
Ratio of oxidized to reduced plasma glutathione   0.093
+/- 0.04
0.150
+/- 0.05
0.109
+/- 0.03
-27% 0.002 0.147
+/- 0.05
0.132
+/- 0.05
-10% n.s.
Plasma nitro-tyrosine ug/l 7.4
+/- 5.1
14.1
+/- 6.5
9.9
+/- 5.4
-29% 0.004 19.0
+/0 8.6
16.3
+/- 9.2
-14% 0.10
  1. The p-value for a t-test comparison of the change in the level is reported. If the p-value is below 0.05, then the result is highlighted. Sulfation is assessed by free and total sulfate, methylation is assessed by SAM and uridine, glutathione is assessed by GSH, and oxidative stress is assessed by GSH:GSSG ratio and nitrotyrosine.