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Table 1 Characteristics of Participants

From: Effect of a vitamin/mineral supplement on children and adults with autism

  Arizona National Group
  Placebo Supplement Placebo Supplements
Total Participants 27 26 42 46
Male 22 (81%) 25 (96%) 39 (93%) 39 (85%)
Female 5 (19%) 1 (4%) 3 (7%) 7 (15%)
Age (years) 10.5 ± 3.1 9.3 ± 3.2 9.5 +/- 5.7 13.1 +/- 10.0
Diagnosis 74% Autism;
19% Aspergers; 7% PDD/NOS
96% Autism;
4% Aspergers
67% Autism
12% Asperger's
21% PDD/NOS
85% Autism
7% Asperger's
9% PDD/NOS
Medications 52% no medication;
8 (30%) psycho-pharmaceuticals - primarily risperdal and clonidine;
4 (15)% CNS stimulants (primarily Concerta);
1 (4%) anti-convulsants;
1 (4%) asthma/allergy medications;
1 (4%) GI medications;
1 (4%) Insulin medications;
2 (7%) blood pressure medications
42% no medication;
8 (32%) psycho-pharmaceuticals - primarily risperdal and clonidine;
1 (4%) CNS stimulants (Dextrostat);
1 (4%) anti-convulsants;
3 (12%) asthma/allergy medications;
2 (8%) GI meds
64% no medications;
10 (24%) atypical anti-psychotics (primarily Risperdal);
2 (5%) on CNS stimulants;
3 (7%) on anti-convulsants;
4 (10%) on allergy/asthma medications;
1 (2%) on GI medications
52% no medications;
14 (30%) atypical anti-psychotics (primarily risperdal);
3 (7%) on CNS stimulants;
7 (15%) on anti-convulsants (primarily Depakote);
6 (13%) on allergy/asthma medications;
1 (2%) on muscle relaxants;
1 (2%) on anti-coagulants
Special Diets 67% on regular diet;
3 gluten-free, casein-free diet;
2 reduced dairy;
2 low sugar
88% on regular diet;
1 gluten-free;
1 reduced gluten;
1 reduced dairy
76% on regular diet;
11% gluten-free, casein-free diet;
1 reduced gluten and casein diet;
2 milk-free;
1 soy-free
1 Feingold diet
67% on regular diet;
11% gluten-free, casein-free diet;
15% reduced dairy/gluten/casein;
1 dairy-free; 1 casein-free; 1 gluten-free; 1 low sugar; 1 no red/blue dyes; 1 lactose free; 1 low soy; 1 vegetarian; 1 no eggs
Nutritional Supplements None 1 on fish oil; 3 on melatonin 5% on fish oil;
1 on melatonin;
1 digestive enzymes;
1 on glucosamine & chondroitin sulfate;
1 on constipation relief
4% on fish oil;
1 on glutamine;
1 on herbal sleep extract;
1 on multi-nutrient supplement