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Table 8 Logistic regression analysis of socio-demographic factors associated with central obesity among Pakistani primary school children aged five to twelve years (n = 1860)a, b

From: Waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and waist-height ratio percentiles and central obesity among Pakistani children aged five to twelve years

Characteristics Crude OR
(95% CI)
P Value Adjusted OR
(95% CI)
P Value
Grade     
   One Reference - Reference -
   Two 0.70 (0.37-1.31) 0.259 0.80 (0.41-1.56) 0.515
   Three 2.29 (1.24-4.22) 0.008 3.15 (1.54-6.45) 0.002
   Four 3.36 (1.66-6.80) 0.001 5.47 (2.25-13.31) < 0.001
   Five 2.84 (1.23-6.54) 0.014 5.11 (1.76-14.85) 0.003
Area and socioeconomic status (SES)     
   Urban with high SES 64.24 (15.74-262.13) < 0.001 82.34 (15.76-430.31) < 0.001
   Urban with middle SES 32.99 (8.01-135.92) < 0.001 35.67 (6.95-183.18) < 0.001
   Urban with low SES 14.83 (3.51-62.64) < 0.001 13.67 (2.86-65.40) 0.001
   Rural (low/disadvantaged SES) Reference - Reference -
Neighborhood income     
   Low 0.16 (0.10-0.25) < 0.001 1.50 (0.77-2.93) 0.239
   Middle 0.43 (0.30-0.61) < 0.001 0.77 (0.51-1.17) 0.220
   High Reference - Reference -
Parental education     
   Illiterate Reference - Reference -
   High school 3.37 (1.36-8.31) 0.008 0.73 (0.26-2.03) 0.545
   College 9.93 (4.25-23.20) < 0.001 1.04 (0.37-2.91) 0.938
   Higher education 14.13 (6.09-32.77) < 0.001 1.32 (0.47-3.73) 0.599
  1. aThe model is controlled for age and gender
  2. b≥90th age- and gender-specific waist circumference (WC) percentile and ≥0.5 waist-height ratio (WHtR)