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Table 1 Frequency of selected physical findings and clinical events in very young HIV-infected and exposed uninfected infants.

From: Utility of clinical parameters to identify HIV infection in infants below ten weeks of age in South Africa: a prospective cohort study

  Exposed uninfected n = 125 Infected
n = 417
Unadjusted p-value3 Adjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI)3
Female gender (%)
Median age, days (IQR)
57 (46)
48 (38-51)
239 (57)
45 (38-56)
0.18
0.071
 
Anthropometry at screening
Median weight, kg (IQR) 4.8 (4.3-5.2) 4.4 (3.9-4.9) < 0.0012 0.51 (0.38-0.68)
Weight < 3 rd centile (%) 8 (6.4) 79 (18.9) < 0.001 3.2 (1.4-6.8)
Weight < 15 th centile (%) 23 (18.4) 166 (39.8) < 0.001 2.8 (1.7-4.6)
Weight < 50 th centile (%) 79 (63.2) 303 (72.7) 0.04 1.5 (0.98-2.3)
Median length, cm 55 (53-56) 54 (52-56) 0.782 0.97 (0.91-1.04)
Median HC, cm 39 (38.4-40) 39 (38-40) 0.202 0.95 (0.88-1.03)
Physical exam findings at screening
Any LAD # (%) 6 (5) 132 (32) < 0.001 8.8 (3.8-20.9)
Candidal rash (%) 8 (6) 46 (11) 0.17 1.6 (0.8-3.6)
Atopic dermatitis (%) 13 (10) 83 (20) 0.01 2.0 (1.1-3.7)
Diaper dermatitis 23 (18) 149 (36) < 0.001 2.4 (1.5-4.0)
Oral thrush (%) 13 (10) 163 (39) < 0.001 5.6 (3.0-10.2)
Hepatomegaly (%) 1 (1) 70 (17) < 0.001 23.5 (3.2-170.8)
Splenomegaly (%) 0 (0) 30 (7) < 0.001 *
Clinical event prior to or at screening
Gastroenteritis (%) 8 (6) 44 (11) 0.17 1.7 (0.8-3.7)
Otitis media (%) 4 (3) 6 (1) 0.20 0.4 (0.1-1.5)
Sepsis (%) 3 (2) 12 (3) 1.00 1.0 (0.3-3.7)
URTI (%) 24 (19) 81 (19) 1.00 1.0 (0.6-1.7)
Reflux (%) 0 (0) 15 (4) 0.03 *
Pneumonia (%) 7 (6) 29 (7) 0.67 1.2 (0.5-2.8)
Laboratory findings
Anemia (%) 0 (0) 22 (5) 0.004 *
Neutropenia (%) 0 (0) 15 (4) 0.03 *
  1. 1 Kruskal Wallis 2ANOVA 3Fishers exact unless otherwise specified
  2. 3Age-adjusted OR of infected infants versus HIV exposed-uninfected infants
  3. IQR - Interquartile range. CI - Confidence Interval. HC - Head circumference. URTI - Upper respiratory tract infection.
  4. #Any lymphadenopathy - includes generalized, cervical, axillary or inguinal
  5. *Small sample sizes prevented the calculation of adjusted OR