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Table 1 Mean levels of cardiometabolic risk factor variables in normal weight and overweight/obese children by waist-to-height ratio: The Bogalusa Heart Study

From: Utility of waist-to-height ratio in assessing the status of central obesity and related cardiometabolic risk profile among normal weight and overweight/obese children: The Bogalusa Heart Study

  NORMAL WEIGHT (BMI- 5th to 85th percentiles)# OVERWEIGHT/OBESE (BMI ≥ 85th percentile)#
Variable Waist-to-Height Ratio Waist-to-Height Ratio
  <0.5 (n = 2343) ≥0.5 (n = 238) p-value <0.5 (n = 101) ≥0.5 (n = 409) p-value
Age 10.9 (0.07) 11.36 (0.23) 0.08 8.5 (0.34) 11.6 (0.16) <0.0001
Male % 48.5 57.6 0.007 46.5 50.6 0.46
White % 53.4 74.0 <0.0001 33.7 60.1 <0.0001
Systolic Blood Pressure (mm Hg) 101.8 (0.16) 104.0 (0.51) <0.0001 105.0 (0.88) 107.2 (0.41) 0.02
Diastolic Blood Pressure (mm Hg) 61.3 (0.14) 62.9 (0.45) 0.0008 64.4 (0.68) 64.9 (0.32) 0.47
Mean Arterial Pressure (mm Hg) 74.7 (0.13) 76.5 (0.42) <0.0001 77.9 (0.63) 79.0 (0.30) 0.12
LDL Cholesterol (mg/dl) 100.2 (0.52) 110.4 (1.65) <0.0001 103.8 (2.86) 111.7 (1.36) 0.01
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 72.1 (0.73) 95.4 (2.32) <0.0001 88.4 (5.57) 108.5 (2.73) 0.002
HDL Cholesterol (mg/dl) 54.4 (0.23) 49.1 (0.75) <0.0001 49.9 (1.03) 46.8 (0.49) 0.008
TG/HDL Ratio 1.4 (0.02) 2.2 (0.06) <0.0001 1.9 (0.16) 2.5 (0.07) 0.003
Glucose (mg/dl) 79.4 (0.17) 81.9 (0.56) <0.0001 81.1 (0.84) 81.9 (0.40) 0.39
Insulin (μU/ml)* 9.9 (0.13) 13.9 (0.43) <0.0001 13.6 (1.37) 19.4 (0.63) <0.0001
Insulin Resistance Index (HOMA-IR)* 1.9 (0.03) 2.8 (0.09) <0.0001 2.8 (0.31) 3.9 (0.14) <0.0001
  1. Data presented as means (standard error) for continuous variables and percentages for categorical variables
  2. *Values presented are the adjusted means, but log values were used for comparisons
  3. #BMI percentiles were age-, race- and sex-specific
  4. Continuous variables (except for age) were adjusted for age, race and gender.
  5. HOMA-IR = Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; TG/HDL Ratio = Triglyceride/HDL Cholesterol Ratio