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Table 1 Characteristics of 4-year old children by presence of secondhand tobacco smoke during early life, in Malmö, Sweden, 2006-2008

From: Early exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and the development of allergic diseases in 4 year old children in Malmö, Sweden

  Secondhand tobacco smoke during the first month in life* Secondhand tobacco smoke at 8 months of age*
  No Yes No Yes
  (n = 3211; 78%) (n = 894; 22%) (n = 2968; 76%) (n = 925; 24%)
Sociodemographic characteristics    
   Male (%) 49.7 50.2 49.3 49.5
   Firstborn (%) 46.7 42.7† 47.2 44.6
   Mother having a low educational level (%) 9.8 21.2† 8.7 21.0†
   Both parents born outside Sweden (%) 26.0 39.1† 24.2 38.9†
   At least one parent with an allergy (%) 39.8 32.0† 39.8 32.0†
   Crowded living (%) 9.4 14.5† 8.8 14.1†
Early life factors    
   Secondhand tobacco smoke at 1 month* (%)    1.5 89.8†
   Low birth weight (<2500 g) (%) 6.0 6.5 5.9 6.5
   Mother smoking during pregnancy (%) 2.5 35.3† 1.9 35.3†
   Secondhand tobacco smoke at 8 months* (%) 3.1 94.9†   
   No breastfeeding (%) 4.4 6.8† 4.5 6.9†
   Taken part of parental education (%) 57.8 44.1† 58.5 45.2†
Environmental factors at 4 years    
   Secondhand tobacco smoke at 4 years* (%) 7.7 71.9† 6.0 73.6†
   Having a pet (%) 22.0 29.8† 22.5 29.4†
   Low emotional support (%) 19.1 23.4 18.7 22.0
  1. *Secondhand tobacco smoke at 0-4 weeks and 8 months of age, respectively, was categorized into no (no secondhand tobacco smoke at all) and yes (daily secondhand tobacco smoke, including smoking outside).
  2. † Statistically significantly (p < 0.05) different compared those not exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke at the same age.