Skip to main content

Table 3 Maternal and child characteristics, by PEDS path of child

From: Maternal well-being and its association to risk of developmental problems in children at school entry

Scale Path A
(high risk for developmental problems)
N = 72
n (%)
Path B
(moderate risk for developmental problems)
N = 153
n (%)
Path C
(elevated risk for behavioural/emotional problems)
N = 93
n (%)
Path E
(low risk for problems)
N = 172
n (%)
Total
N = 490
n (%)
p-value
Child Factors       
Male 45 (63) 82 (54) 43 (46) 70 (41) 240 (49) 0.009
Ear infections prior to age 2 29 (41) 52 (35) 37 (40) 56 (33) 174 (36) 0.503
Poor overall social competence* 32 (45) 40 (26) 38 (41) 30 (17) 140 (29) <0.001
   Poor prosocial/communication skills* 30 (42) 40 (26) 32 (34) 21 (12) 123 (25) <0.001
   Poor emotional regulation skills* 35 (49) 44 (29) 41 (44) 35 (20) 155 (32) <0.001
Current Maternal Factors       
SF-8       
   Poor physical health* 25 (36) 39 (26) 22 (24) 35 (21) 121 (25) 0.114
   Poor mental health* 26 (37) 45 (30) 21 (23) 29 (17) 121 (25) 0.004
Social Support       
   Poor emotional/informational support* 27 (40) 34 (23) 29 (32) 30 (18) 120 (25) 0.003
   Poor tangible support* 28 (41) 45 (30) 29 (31) 44 (26) 146 (30) 0.139
   Poor positive interaction* 32 (47) 45 (30) 28 (30) 38 (22) 143 (30) 0.003
   Poor affection* 30 (43) 34 (22) 26 (28) 37 (22) 127 (26) 0.006
   Poor overall support index* 31 (46) 35 (24) 27 (30) 32 (19) 125 (27) <0.001
Parenting Sense of Competence       
   Low efficacy* 27 (40) 37 (25) 27 (29) 35 (21) 126 (27) 0.033
   Low satisfaction* 28 (41) 36 (24) 29 (32) 31 (18) 124 (26) 0.002
Poor parenting morale* 31 (46) 43 (28) 30 (33) 33 (20) 137 (28) 0.001
Historical Maternal Factors       
Poor parenting morale at 3 years post partum 31 (43) 40 (26) 25 (27) 28 (16) 124 (25) <0.001
Poor physical health at 3 years 24 (33) 34 (22) 21 (23) 27 (16) 106 (22) 0.024
Poor social support at 3 years post partum 12 (17) 15 (10) 10 (11) 15 (9) 52 (11) 0.324
Depression for 2 or more weeks post partum 32 (44) 52 (34) 32 (34) 52 (30) 168 (34) 0.212
Poor social support during pregnancy 17 (24) 32 (21) 23 (25) 22 (13) 94 (19) 0.045
Low score on positive feelings during pregnancy 21 (29) 46 (30) 33 (35) 44 (25) 144 (29) 0.406
History of abuse, at pregnancy 30 (42) 56 (37) 33 (35) 38 (22) 157 (32) 0.004
Maternal Socio-Demographic Factors       
Income <$80,000 29 (40) 48 (31) 26 (28) 45 (26) 158 (30) 0.169
No post-secondary education 13 (18) 24 (16) 17 (18) 26 (15) 80 (16) 0.881
No marriage or common-law partner 8 (11) 5 (3) 5 (5) 7 (4) 25 (5) 0.102
  1. *Children or mothers scoring in the lowest quartile of these measures.
  2. Note: Denominator varies due to missing data on some survey items. The denominator is not 491 in this table because one mother completed only half of the PEDS survey as her questionnaire was missing a page.