Skip to main content

Table 1 Detailed description of standardized measurement scales used in the study

From: Maternal well-being and its association to risk of developmental problems in children at school entry

Scale Description
Parents' Evaluation of Development Status (PEDS) The PEDS is a parent-reported screening measure to facilitate detection of developmental and behavioural/emotional problems [34]. The scale contains 10 items: global/cognitive, expressive language, receptive language, fine motor, gross motor, behaviour, social-emotional, self-help, school, and other issues (typically medical or sensory) [35]. Scoring of the PEDS categorizes children into one of five paths, depending on their level of risk for developmental and behavioural/emotional problems.
Child Social Competence Scale Using a 5-point Likert scale, the Social Competence Scale - Parent Version assesses a child's prosocial behaviours, communication skills, and self control. The scale has two subscales: prosocial/communication skills and emotional regulation skills. The scale has 12 items that each refer to a behaviour that a child may exhibit in a social setting. The parent reports how well each statement describes the child. Examples of statements include: "Your child can give suggestions and opinions without being bossy" and "Your child can calm down when excited or 'all wound up"' [37].
SF-8 The SF-8 Health Survey is a widely used generic multipurpose short-form (SF) survey of health status with sub-scales for mental and physical health. The scale has eight items to measure eight domains of health: physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional, and mental health [38].
Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Scale Using a 5-point Likert scale, the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Scale measures functional social support according to four subscales and also provides an overall measure of support. The scale has 19 items, and respondents indicate how often each kind of support was available to them if they need it. The four subscales are: emotional/informational ("the expression of positive affect, empathetic understanding, the encouragement of expression of feelings" and "the offering of advice, information, guidance, or feedback"), tangible ("the provision of material aid or behavioral assistance"), affection ("expressions of love and affection"), and positive social interaction ("other people to do fun things with you") [39].
Parenting Sense of Competence Scale Using a 6-point Likert scale, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale assesses the degree to which a parent feels competent and confident in handling a child's problems and the degree of satisfaction they associate with parenting. The scale contains 16 items. Examples of items include: "Being a parent is manageable, and any problems are easily solved" and "Sometimes I feel like I'm not getting anything done" [40].
Parenting Morale Index (PMI) Using a 5-point Likert scale, the PMI measures how frequently parents experience ten emotional states (optimistic, worried, contented, frustrated, satisfied, happy, stressed, lonely, exhausted, and guilty). The scale contains 10 items [41].