Skip to main content

Table 1 Background data and WHO z-score for weight-for length (WFL) of 929 children and their mother with available Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) and anthropometry at 24 months.

From: Maternal postnatal depression and child growth: a European cohort study

   n %/mean(SD) z-score weight-for length at 24 months p-value
Total   929 100.0 0.26 (0.91)  
Ever EPDS >= 13 at 2, 3 or 6 months <13 827 89.0 0.25 (0.91) 0.6431
  >=13 102 11.0 0.30 (0.91)  
EPDS >= 13 at 2 months <13 839 93.1 0.25 (0.90) 0.5053
  >=13 62 6.9 0.33 (1.02)  
EPDS >= 13 at 2 or 3 months and 6 months <13 903 98.3 0.25 (0.91) 0.2963
  >=13 16 1.7 0.01 (0.83)  
Country Germany 143 15.4 0.18 (0.89) <0.001
  Belgium 116 12.5 0.38 (0.86)  
  Italy 265 28.5 -0.04 (0.88)  
  Poland 159 17.1 0.36 (0.90)  
  Spain 246 26.5 0.21 (0.99)  
Gender male 449 48.3 0.29 (0.85) 0.2552
  female 480 51.7 0.22 (0.97)  
Birth order 1st child 537 57.9 0.28 (0.92) 0.5814
  2nd child 301 32.5 0.23 (0.92)  
  >2nd child 89 9.6 0.18 (0.82)  
Birth weight <3130 g 313 33.7 0.29 (0.85) 0.0017
  3130 - 3450 g 314 33.8 0.11 (0.88)  
  >3450 g 302 32.5 0.37 (0.98)  
Study formula lower protein 313 33.7 0.37 (0.93) 0.0197
  higher protein 319 34.3 0.18 (0.86)  
  breastfed 297 32.0 0.21 (0.93)  
Single mother yes 38 4.1 0.26 (0.91) 0.3928
  no 889 95.9 0.13 (0.90)  
Pregnancy not wished yes 73 7.9 0.24 (0.91) 0.2041
  no 852 92.1 0.38 (0.92)  
Mother frequently experienced stress during pregnancy yes 139 15.0 0.25 (0.91) 0.8096
  no 789 85.0 0.27 (0.94)  
Caesarean section yes 197 21.3 0.22 (0.92) 0.0487
  no 728 78.7 0.37 (0.89)  
Mother's education level (ISCED) no/low 198 21.4 0.32 (0.94) 0.3906
  middle 472 50.9 0.22 (0.91)  
  high 257 27.7 0.25 (0.87)  
Smoking of mother 3 months prior to or during pregnancy yes 324 35.0 0.21 (0.93) 0.0362
  no 602 65.0 0.34 (0.87)  
Smoking of mother beyond 12th week of pregnancy yes 173 18.7 0.24 (0.91) 0.1780
  no 754 81.3 0.34 (0.90)  
BMI mother <20 163 18.3 0.25 (0.86) 0.1585
  20-<25 482 54.0 0.25 (1.00)  
  25-<30 183 20.5 0.19 (0.93)  
  >=30 64 7.2 0.49 (0.99)  
Mother's age <28 253 27.3 0.27 (0.90) 0.9231
  28-<33 363 39.1 0.26 (0.89)  
  33-44 312 33.6 0.24 (0.96)