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Table 7 Standardized Regression Coefficients (βs) Predicting 1990 Antisocial Behavior from Four 1988 Disciplinary Tactics and Psychotherapy by Covariate for Pre-Existing Behavior Problems When Entered Simultaneously (and Without Interactions)

From: Do nonphysical punishments reduce antisocial behavior more than spanking? a comparison using the strongest previous causal evidence against spanking

Covariate for Initial Behavior Problems Spank Grounding Remove Privileges Send to Room Psychotherapy
None      
   Control only for other tactics .23*** .21*** .02 -.00 .27**
   Controlling for other predictorsa .19*** .18*** .01 .05 .24**
Antisocial Behavior 1988a      
   Dichotomous .15*** .17** .02 .02 .22*
   Trichotomous .12** .14* .01 .01 .19*
   Continuous .12* .15** .02 .00 .19*
Externalizing Behavior 1988a      
   Continuous (measured variable) .12* .12d .02 .01 .13
   Continuous (latent variable)b .04 .03 .04 -.05 .02
   Gain in Latent Externalizingc -.02 -.06 .00 -.03 .02
  1. Note. N = 782, except N = 785 for the structural equation models. A positive β indicates that those receiving the disciplinary tactic in 1988 averaged higher 1990 antisocial behavior than those not receiving that disciplinary tactic, after controlling for the variables indicated. The βs are based on linear associations for the last 2 rows. The other βs are based on the effect size contrasting the weighted marginal mean antisocial behavior for one or more occurrences of the disciplinary actions (or seeing a psychotherapist) vs. the mean antisocial behavior associated with no occurrences of the disciplinary action or psychotherapy. In contrast to Tables 5 and 6, all results control for the other four corrective actions.
  2. aThe "other predictors" were those in the ANCOVA in Straus et al.[1]: gender, ethnicity, SES, cognitive stimulation, and emotional support as well as the other four corrective actions. The 2-way interactions were not included in any analyses in this table.
  3. bThe latent structural equation modeling analysis estimates linear associations between the frequency of each disciplinary tactic and Antisocial behavior in 1990, controlling for the other predictors in the model, including latent Externalizing problems, which has three indicators (Antisocial, Hyperactivity, and Headstrong), with correlated residuals between the latter two subscales. Fit indices: χ2 (22, N = 785) = 47.69, p = .0008; CFI = .974; RMSEA = .040.
  4. cThis row summarizes the only analysis predicting the 16-item Externalizing score in 1990, in this case in terms of gain scores in that latent score from 1988 to 1990 (see Figure 2). Fit indices: χ2 (21, N = 785) = 22.06, p = .34; CFI = .993; RMSEA = .011.
  5. d P < .10.
  6. *P < .05. **P < .01. ***P < .001.