Skip to main content

Table 6 Standardized Regression Coefficients (βs) Predicting 1990 Antisocial Behavior from Four 1988 Disciplinary Tactics and Psychotherapy by Covariate for Pre-Existing Behavior Problems After Dropping Cases Using No Disciplinary Tactics of Any Kind

From: Do nonphysical punishments reduce antisocial behavior more than spanking? a comparison using the strongest previous causal evidence against spanking

Covariate for Initial
Behavior Problems
Spank Grounding Remove Privileges Send to Room Psychotherapy
None      
   Zero-order r .22*** .22*** .08d .01 .14**
   Controlling for other predictorsa .11d .15*** .04 .03 .38**
Antisocial Behavior 1988a      
   Dichotomous .09 .14** .06 .02 .30*
   Trichotomous .08 .11** .08 .05 .23
   Continuous .08 .13* .06 .03 .24
Externalizing Behavior 1988a      
   Continuous (measured variable) .08 .08 .05 .05 .24
   Continuous (latent variable)b .03 .04 .04 -.05 .02
   Gain in Latent Externalizingc -.03 -.07 -.02 -.02 .01
  1. Note. N = 571 for the disciplinary tactics; 570 for psychotherapy. A positive β indicates that those receiving the disciplinary tactic in 1988 averaged higher 1990 antisocial behavior than those not receiving that disciplinary tactic, after controlling for the variables indicated. The βs are based on linear associations for the first row and the last 2 rows. The other βs are based on the effect size contrasting the weighted marginal mean antisocial behavior for one or more occurrences of the disciplinary actions (or seeing a psychotherapist) vs. the mean antisocial behavior associated with no occurrences of the disciplinary action or psychotherapy.
  2. aThe "other predictors" were those in the ANCOVA in Straus et al. [1]: gender, ethnicity, SES, cognitive stimulation, emotional support, and the 2-way interactions of the disciplinary tactic with each of those predictors. The 2-way interactions were not included in the structural equation modeling or the gain in latent externalizing problems.
  3. bThe latent structural equation modeling analyses estimate linear associations between the frequency of each disciplinary tactic and Antisocial behavior in 1990, controlling for the other predictors in the model, including latent Externalizing problems, which has three indicators (Antisocial, Hyperactivity, and Headstrong), with correlated residuals between the latter two subscales. Fit indices: χ2s (13, N = 571) from 34.67 to 37.49, ps from .0003 to .0010; CFIs from .964 to .968; RMSEAs from .054 to .057.
  4. cThis row summarizes the only analyses predicting the 16-item Externalizing score in 1990, in this case in terms of gain scores in that latent score from 1988 to 1990 (see Figure 2). Fit indices: χ2s (12, N = 571) from 10.88 to 15.65, ps from .19 to .54; CFIs from .980 to 1.000; RMSEAs from .000 to .024.
  5. d P < .10.
  6. *P < .05. **P < .01. ***P < .001.