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Table 4 Effects of Alternative Disciplinary Tactics and Psychotherapy in 1988 on Antisocial Behavior in 1990 When Substituted for Spanking in the Analysis Summarized in Table 3

From: Do nonphysical punishments reduce antisocial behavior more than spanking? a comparison using the strongest previous causal evidence against spanking

Corrective Action Degrees of Freedom Mean Sum of Squares F Value
Spanking 3 798.4 2.87*
Grounding 3 893.1 3.20*
Privilege removal 3 435.4 1.53
Sending to room 3 632.6 2.20a
Psychotherapy 1 1116.5 3.93*
  1. N = 785, except 782 for Psychotherapy.
  2. a P < .10.
  3. *P < .05.