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Table 3 Antisocial Behavior in 1990 by Spanking Frequency in 1988 and Six Other Covariates for Children from 6 to 9 Years Old in 1988

From: Do nonphysical punishments reduce antisocial behavior more than spanking? a comparison using the strongest previous causal evidence against spanking

Main Effects and Interactions Degrees of Freedom Mean Sum of Squares F Ratio
   Predictors from 1988    
Main Effects    
   Spanking frequency 3 798.4 2.87*
   Gender 1 1576.2 5.66*
   Cognitive Stimulation 2 383.3 1.38
   Emotional Support 2 1271.3 4.56*
   Ethnicity 1 0.8 .00
   Socioeconomic status 2 1170.6 4.20*
   Antisocial behavior (zero, low, high) 2 12460.2 44.72***
2-Way Interactions With Spanking    
   Gender 3 386.4 1.39
   Cognitive Stimulation 6 183.4 0.66
   Emotional Support 6 375.8 1.35
   Ethnicity 3 371.8 1.33
   Socioeconomic status 6 190.3 0.68
   Antisocial behavior 6 115.5 0.42
   Residual 741 278.6  
  1. Note. A natural log transformation of 1990 antisocial behavior was used to reduce skewness. The original 807 cases were reduced to N = 785 for this analysis due to missing values on grounding, privilege removal, or sending child to room.
  2. *P < .05. ***P < .001.