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Table 2 Inter-Correlations for Disciplinary Tactics, Psychotherapy, Control Variables, Antisocial Behavior, Hyperactivity, and Headstrong Subscales

From: Do nonphysical punishments reduce antisocial behavior more than spanking? a comparison using the strongest previous causal evidence against spanking

Variable 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.
1. Spank 1. .14 .09 .09 -.00 -.21 -.12 -.07 -.07 .08 .15 .16 .21 .22 -.03 -.01 .02
2. Grounding .27 1. .35 .07 .04 -.13 -.07 -.08 -.04 .18 .20 .14 .18 .22 -.07 -.05 .04
3. Priv. removal .22 .42 1. .16 .02 .06 -.06 -.05 -.02 .14 .03 .01 .04 .08 -.03 -.02 .05
4. Sent to room .31 .22 .30 1. .03 .10 -.01 .03 .00 -.12 .04 .12 .08 .01 .05 -.02 -.07
5. Therapy .01 .04 .03 .04 1. .00 -.04 -.11 .05 -.06 .16 .13 .11 .14 .02 -.01 .03
6. Cogntv stim -.17 -.11 .04 .07 -.01 1. .24 .03 .24 -.26 -.13 -.10 -.22 -.23 -.04 .01 -.01
7. SES -.10 -.07 -.06 -.02 -.02 .22 1. .02 .14 -.09 -.08 -.01 -.14 -.12 -.05 -.08 .01
8. Female -.10 -.09 -.08 -.03 -.13 .02 .01 1. .06 .00 -.13 -.09 -.12 -.16 -.02 .02 -.05
9. Emot. support -.07 -.05 -.04 -.02 .03 .25 .15 .04 1. -.16 -.06 -.03 -.10 -.17 -.03 -.01 -.07
10. Non-White .09 .16 .13 -.06 -.07 -.25 -.07 .05 -.17 1. -.04 -.16 .05 .08 .03 .03 .03
[1988 Behavior Problem Index subscales]:
11. Hyperactivity .19 .21 .08 .12 .15 -.12 -.08 -.13 -.05 -.02 1. .55 .44 .39 -.41 -.13 -.04
12. Headstrong .23 .19 .09 .21 .11 -.07 -.06 -.11 -.04 -.11 .56 1. .47 .37 -.16 -.41 -.09
13. Antisocial .27 .22 .11 .18 .10 -.19 -.15 -.15 -.09 .07 .44 .49 1. .49 -.13 -.15 -.49
[1990 Behavior Problem Index subscale]:
14. Antisocial .27 .25 .14 .13 .12 -.21 -.15 -.17 -.15 .09 .41 .39 .49 1. .16 .25 .52
[Gain in Behavior Problem Index subscales from 1988 to 1990]:
15. Hyperactivity -.04 -.06 -.04 .02 .00 -.02 -.04 -.01 -.03 .02 -.42 -.15 -.12 .15 1. .39 .28
16. Headstrong -.03 -.06 -.03 -.04 .00 .01 -.04 .03 .00 .01 -.13 -.40 -.16 .26 .39 1. .39
17. Antisocial .01 .03 .04 -.05 .03 -.02 -.01 -.03 -.06 .02 -.03 -.09 -.49 .53 .26 .41 1.
Full sample statistics
   Mean .74 .43 .44 .92 .04 .06 .07 .49 .03 .59 1.68 1.71 50.29 50.17 -.05 .01 -.12
   SD .994 .826 .839 1.096 .204 .733 .677 .500 .785 .492 .364 .364 18.99 19.55 .338 .339 19.52
Subsample statistics
   Mean 1.02 .59 .61 1.27 .05 .06 .05 .46 .00 .61 1.71 1.76 53.09 52.93 -.06 .00 -.16
   SD 1.038 .918 .931 1.102 .213 .733 .665 .499 .790 .489 .361 .351 18.84 19.30 .335 .341 19.26
  1. Note: N = 785 below diagonal for full sample (782 for therapy). N = 571 above diagonal for subsample with some use of at least one tactic (570 for therapy). Cogntv stim = Cognitive stimulus. P < .05 if |r| > .08.